Trends in Print and Mail

The Berkshire Company Blog

Effective Address Management Part 6: Additional USPS Tools

Posted by Mark Fallon on Aug 12, 2015 5:30:00 AM

Using software certified by the US Postal Service (USPS), like the Coding Accuracy Support System (CASS) and NCOALink, companies can format and update their customers’ addresses. To take the next step, mailers have access to additional USPS tools to improve address quality, including the Address Element Correction (AEC) and Address Change Service (ACS) programs.

Mailers may have pieces that were delivered by the USPS, however the addresses don’t generate a Delivery Point Validation (DPV) when run through CASS software. That means the mailer is foregoing postal discounts and is unable to take advantage of all the Full Service IMb benefits. The best USPS programs for this situation are AEC and AEC II.

AEC is best described as “CASS Plus”. With input from the mailing industry, the USPS developed specialized programs that break down the elements of the address, and perform a series of evaluations and comparisons. Through these logarithms, the AEC software is able to add missing elements and correct many errors that commercial software can’t resolve.

For the tougher addresses, mailers can request the AEC II service. Under this program, the addresses are sent to the local USPS delivery unit for resolution. The USPS is then able to tap into their proprietary "Delivery Force Knowledge" system. In other words, they ask the letter carriers responsible for that address for their help. That’s right, a human being with actual knowledge of the problem address – not software – corrects the list.

For unidentified moves, mailers should consider the Address Change Service (ACS) program. With ACS, if an address on a mailpiece is incorrect, the USPS sends the mailer an electronic file with the change of address or other reasons for non-delivery. To participate, the mailer needs to enroll and then modify their address block or mailing label. When the modified pieces are processed by the USPS on the Postal Automation Redirection System (PARS) or Computerized Forwarding System, an ACS notification is generated. The notifications are forwarded to the National Customer Support Center, and then consolidated into a file for the mailer.

There are 4 different methods for implementing ACS:

+ Read More

United States Postal Service / Operations Management

Postal Regulatory Commission Ruling on the Exigent Rate Case – In English

Posted by Mark Fallon on Aug 2, 2015 12:51:42 PM

On Wednesday, July 29, 2015, the Postal Regulatory Commission (“PRC”) issued Order Number 2623 regarding the exigent rate increase proposed by the United States Postal Service (“USPS”) in 2013. The purpose of this order was to resolve the issues remanded back to the PRC by the US Court of Appeals (“the Court”) ruling on June 5. Under this order, the exigent rate increase will remain in effect until the USPS recovers an additional $1.91 billion.
+ Read More

United States Postal Service

Effective Address Management Part 5: Production Process Integrity

Posted by Mark Fallon on Jul 29, 2015 5:30:00 AM

One aspect of effective address management that needs to be considered is establishing and following a production process with high integrity. In other words, there are controls in place that make sure the correct document goes into the correct envelope with the correct address. Accuracy during production impacts address management by reducing volumes of return mail and ensuring accuracy in postal documentation.

Most return mail received by companies is caused by address issues. The address may be incomplete, incorrect or the recipient may have moved. Many of those issues may be avoided using software to clean addresses when they’re entered into the system, on a regular schedule or directly before print.

Mail may also be returned because of errors in the production process. Smeared ink may make the address illegible. Improper folds can cause the address to not appear in the envelopes’ window. Double-stuffs can change the order of pages – or even worse – insert someone else’s information into the wrong envelope.

Accurate management of the print and mail stream determines the correctness of the documentation filed with the US Postal Service (USPS). Damaged pieces must be removed from the “Mail.dat” file. Postage due amounts, potentially including discount qualifications, need to be recalculated. Under the new Mailers Scorecard Program, all of this will now be tracked by the USPS.

There are different methods of implementing a high-integrity production system. Common characteristics of the best systems include:

+ Read More

United States Postal Service / Operations Management

Effective Address Management Part 4: Validate Before Print

Posted by Mark Fallon on Jul 15, 2015 5:30:00 AM

So far in this series on address management, we’ve recommended verifying addresses when your company receives them, and then checking the database on a regular basis after that. But the process doesn’t stop there. As the commercial says, “Wait, there’s more.”
+ Read More

United States Postal Service / Operations Management

Effective Address Management Part 3: Regular Check-Ups

Posted by Mark Fallon on Jul 1, 2015 5:30:00 AM

+ Read More

United States Postal Service / Operations Management

Effective Address Management Part 2: First Contact

Posted by Mark Fallon on Jun 17, 2015 5:30:00 AM

When using mail to communicate with your customers, the address is the keystone – the lynchpin that holds together the content, creativity, production and delivery of documents. Keep your system running smoothly by formatting, updating and maintaining addresses as soon as the organization acquires the information.

Companies may attain addresses individually or as part of a list. A prospect or customer may initiate contact through the mail, by telephone or on a website. Or the company may receive a group of addresses - by purchasing a list, or receiving a batch update from a customer (e.g., an insurance company receives a list of employees). In both cases, the addresses should be validated for completeness and accuracy as soon as possible.

The United States Postal Service (“USPS”) has established standards for the proper formatting of addresses (Publication 28 - Postal Addressing Standards). Following the proper standards improves the deliverability of the mail, reduces the amount of return mail and allows for participation in postage discount programs. Companies can use USPS-certified software that puts addresses into the proper format and validates the correct ZIP Code information. The certification is known as the Coding Accuracy Support System or “CASS”.

For individual addresses, a company may choose to validate addresses in real-time or in a batch mode. To check individual addresses automatically, the company’s software bounces the address against a CASS-certified engine using an application programming interface (“API”). Many people who order on the internet have encountered this type of update. They enter an address on an order form and on the next screen, the address is presented in the correct USPS format with the full ZIP+4 code displayed. The API software may interface with CASS software installed locally or via an internet subscription (SaaS).

Using “real-time” correction reduces the numbers of address errors in a database. Postal coding software often makes changes to an address, like the street directional or unit designation. If the information is being entered by a customer service representative, they can confirm the change with the person during the call. If the person is entering information on a website, they’ll be able to validate the coded address.

If the systems don’t allow for an API interface, or if the company is receiving lists of new customers, then batch jobs checking all new addresses should be scheduled nightly. Not only does this practice ensure conformity with postal regulations, it exposes any errors as soon as possible. It also allows the company to start correcting those errors before any mailpieces are sent out – and returned as undeliverable.

For any customer or prospect lists received, the batch job should also include running the list against the National Change of Address (“NCOALink”) database. Using NCOALink is one method of being compliant with Move Update - matching the mailer's address records with change-of-address (“COA”) orders received and maintained by the USPS. There are four approved and two alternative Move Update methods. Mailers can meet the Move Update requirement in the following five ways:

+ Read More

United States Postal Service / Operations Management

Court Ruling Impacts Future Postage Rates

Posted by Mark Fallon on Jun 7, 2015 7:17:02 AM

On Friday, June 5, 2015, the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit (“the Court”) issued their decision on the Exigent Rate increase approved by the Postal Regulatory Commission (“PRC”) in December, 2013. The decision answered petitions by the United States Postal Service (“USPS”) and mailing industry groups against the PRC’s 2013 order. The USPS argued that the PRC’s exigent rate approval didn’t go far enough, while the mailers argued that the PRC went too far. The Court issued a spilt decision.


In their December 24, 2013 ruling, the PRC found that the USPS experienced financial harm as a result of the Great Recession of 2008 – 2009, and was legally entitled to implement temporary price increases in excess of the CPI cap. The PRC denied the Postal Service’s request to make the increases permanent. It found allowing the increases to remain in effect indefinitely would be inconsistent with fundamental postal policies underlying the price cap.

The PRC determined that the USPS didn’t adequately break out losses due to electronic diversion from the losses due to the recession. The PRC analysis determined that the recession caused the loss of 25.3 billion pieces with a value of $2.8 billion. The exigent rate increase would stay in effect until the USPS recovers the $2.8 billion, with the additional requirement of reporting quarterly on revenues generated by the rate increase. The mailing industry expected the exigent rate increase to expire in late summer of 2015.

Appeals Case and Decision

In early 2014, the USPS and 20 mailing organizations petitioned the Court to review the PRC ruling. Although the petitioners were arguing for different decisions, the cases were consolidated, with oral arguments heard on September 29, 2014. All parties hoped for a ruling before the next rate case, but that was not to happen. The decision was issued 6 days after the new rates went into effect.

The arguments of the USPS centered on their calculations on the volumes lost due to the recession, and that the PRC “new normal” rule was arbitrary. The “new normal” concept means the economic disruption had ended, the rate of change on USPS volumes is positive, the USPS has the ability to predict or project volumes, and the USPS demonstrates the ability to adjust operations to the lower volumes. The Court ruled that the PRC was within its discretion in applying the “new normal” rule, and denied the USPS’s petition on that matter.

However, in determining the mail volumes lost, the PRC applied a “count once” rule. The example in the decision is a worker who was laid off has to cancel her cable and no longer pays that monthly bill. The PRC only counts that change as a difference of 12 pieces, limiting the loss to only the first year. The USPS argued that the change should be extended for as long as it takes the worker to get a new job.

The Court stated that the PRC could have used the “new normal” rule to better determine how long they should have counted lost mail. The “count once” rule was vacated and remanded the decision to the PRC “for proceedings consistent with this opinion.”

The Court denied the mailing organizations’ petition for review. With blunt language, the Court dismissed each of the arguments, including the claim that the PRC confused “correlation” and “causation” with their review of the data impacting the loss of mail volumes. The Court could “see no fatal error in the Commission’s analysis.”

Implications to Mailers

The Court’s decision supports the PRC’s approval of a temporary exigent rate case, while it dismisses the PRC’s calculations of the financial loss suffered by the USPS. This means that the exigent rates will expire, but the PRC will need to review their December 24, 2013 decision, and reassess the number of mail pieces lost and the financial impact of the lost postage.

The Court’s dismissal of the “count once” rule means that the PRC’s $2.8 billion loss estimate is too low. With the many economic variables that must be considered, it will probably be several weeks before the PRC issues a new decision. At this time, the PRC hasn’t indicated what steps they’ll take next. It’s likely that the PRC will extend the period of time the current exigent rate increase stays in effect, well past this coming August. That means mailers should plan on the current postage rates to stay in effect for the remainder of 2015.

+ Read More

United States Postal Service

It Begins With the Address

Posted by Mark Fallon on Jun 3, 2015 5:30:00 AM

In the 1990s, my favorite speaker at the National Postal Forum (NPF) was Paul Green. In addition to being a fellow Irish-American from Greater Boston, Paul shared my passion for the mailing industry. Most of all, Paul loved to talk about addresses – and their critical role in the print-mail process. No matter how well-designed, beautifully printed or efficiently created, unless a mailpiece gets delivered to the right recipient, it’s a waste of money.

Paul’s experience with addressing started much earlier. He worked for an insurance company that was one of the first adopters in using software update addresses. The goal was to review the computer database and validate that addresses were compliant with United States Postal Service (USPS) standards. Paul was so essential to the success of the project, the software company hired him.

At the NPF, Paul spoke about how to implement a good address hygiene program and reduce returned mail. He supplemented the numbers, regulations and acronyms with a style that approached evangelicalism. In fact, he started each class with, “In the beginning (pause), was the address.”

Paul may be retired, but his message remains valid. Having the correct mailing address is the keystone to a successful print-mail operation. And this is true whether we’re discussing transactional mail, advertising mail or parcels. To effectively communicate with your customers, you must have a professional address management program.

An effective address management program isn’t an isolated occurrence. Instead, it involves deploying tools and getting feedback throughout the customer communication process. The goal is to keep the customer interaction loop intact and continuous.

+ Read More

Operations Management

Growing Together at the 2015 National Postal Forum

Posted by Mark Fallon on May 27, 2015 5:30:00 AM

Maybe some people don’t see the opportunities of using physical mail, but they weren’t among the approximate 3,500 attendees at the National Postal Forum (NPF) last week in Anaheim, California. Whether it was vendors in the exhibit hall or presentations in the classrooms, people were bullish about the benefits and the future of physical mail. And leading the charge was the Postmaster General (PMG), Megan Brennan.

For the last several years, the principal message from the leadership of the United States Postal Service (USPS) centered on the gloomy outlook for mail volumes, the fiscal crisis created by Congress and the need to reduce mail service to 5-days-a-week delivery. That was not the case this year. PMG Brennan and her team focused on the positive side of the narrative, emphasizing that physical mail is complementary to electronic communication.

+ Read More

United States Postal Service

Preparing for the US Postal Service 2015 Rate Increase

Posted by Mark Fallon on May 20, 2015 5:30:00 AM

On May 31, 2015, the new postage rates go into effect, and mailers need to take action to be properly prepared for the new rates. For most companies, the first day of mailing under the new rates will be Monday, June 1, 2015.

As soon as possible, send an announcement to your customers. If you manage a corporate mail center, that means the departments you service. The notice should include an explanation of the new rates, and how the rates will impact your customers’ costs. If your department or company can help mitigate the expenses through better presort or changing classes of mail, this is the time to highlight those opportunities.

Also provide a chart on the new retail rates, and explain how the rates will impact personal mailings, such as bills. By providing this type of information, you reinforce your image as the expert on postal affairs, and that you add value to the process.

Meet with local USPS representatives, including the acceptance unit. Review the changes with the new postal statements, including electronic submission. If possible, meet with the Business Mail Acceptance unit manager or supervisor. Ensure that everyone is on the same page with any changes.

Talk to postage meter and software vendors. Include your programmers on the call, to make sure they understand when and how the updates will be delivered, how to properly install the updates, and how to test the changes. Establish a phone tree for reporting and resolving any problems with the installation.

Schedule training for your employees about the new rates. Review the new rates and forms for every category of mail your shop produces. Go over the update schedule for the meters and software, discussing any potential impact to production. Lastly, cover the actions the department will take directly before and after the new rates go into effect.

Prepare to implement all the changes at the end of the day on either May 29 (Monday through Friday operations) or May 30 (Monday through Saturday operations). Download and install meter and software updates. Post reminders around your mail center about the new rates. This includes putting printed notices at the meters, the inserters and the customer service desk. For corporate mail centers, also post reminders at internal mail stops. Replace all internal and postage statement forms.

On Monday, June 1, send out another notice to your internal and external customers about the rate change. At the daily huddle with your employees, remind them about the changes and answer any last-minute questions. Inspect every meter to make sure the settings are correct, and review the testing the programmers completed on the software updates. Conduct additional quality control checks throughout the day.

If possible, have a manager or supervisor accompany the mail to the post office at the end of the day. Rate cases are a significant change for everyone involved, and there may be confusion. Have someone with your mail who is authorized to resolve any problems and answer any questions.

To assist mailers with these changes, The Berkshire Company has published a new e-book, “Preparing Your Mail Operation for the U.S. Postal Service 2015 Rate Increase”. This free resource, which includes an implementation checklist, is designed to help managers ensure a successful transition to the new postal rates.

Download Rate Case E-Book + Read More

United States Postal Service

Subscribe to our blog

Subscribe via email

About the Company

The Berkshire Company improves business processes in your print & mail operations, helping you solve real problems.

Blog Authors